Main Article Content
The HDI has played an influential role in the debate on human development for many years. However, no index is perfect in the HDI. It can be argued that the current HDI does not totally reflect human development performance, and thus proper rankings for some countries. Therefore, this article aims to construct a new composite index for the development performance of a sample of 30 organizations for OECD countries by adding a fourth indicator, namely the employment rate to the calculation of HDI. Including employment factors in HDI as a new indicator has not only made the index more comprehensive but also presented a more suitable dimension for assessing the development performance of countries. By considering these factors, it is hoped that people will get a decent income in order to achieve a level of welfare.
How to Cite
Development, HDI, Employment, OECD Countries, Time-series
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Cherchye, L., Ooghe, E., & Van Puyenbroeck, T. (2008). Robust human development rankings. Journal of Economic Inequality, 6(4), 287-321.
Chowdhury, S., & Squire, L. (2006). Setting Weights for Aggregate Indices: An Application to the Commitment to Development Index and Human Development Index. Journal of Development Studies, 42(5), 761-771.
Clark, A. E., & Oswald, A. J. (1994). Unhappiness and unemployment. Economic Journal, 104(424), 648–659.
Crafts, N. F. (1997). The Human Development Index and changes in standards of living: Some historical comparisons. European Review of Economic History, 1(3), 299-322.
Crafts, N. (2002). The human development index, 1870–1999: Some revised estimates. European Review of Economic History, 6(3), 395-405.
Costantini, V., & Monni, S. (2008). Sustainability and Human Development. Economia Politica, 25(1),11-31.
Darma, D. C. (2019). Determinants of the Gross Regional Domestic Product of East Kalimantan Province: Macroeconomic Variable Review. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, 9(1), 232-241.
Doessel, D. P., & Gounder, R. (1994). Theory and measurement of living levels: Some empirical results for the human development index. Journal of International Development, 6(4), 415–435.
Engineer, M., King, I., & Roy, N. (2008). The Human Development Index as a Criterion for Optimal Planning. The University of Melbourne, Department of Economics. Working Papers Series, No. 1041. Retrieved from http://www.economics.unimelb.edu.au/SITE/research/workingpapers/wp08/1041.pdf
Foster, J., Lopez-Calva, L., & Szekely, M. (2005). Measuring the Distribution of Human Development: Methodology and an Application to Mexico. Journal of Human Development, 6(1), 5-29.
Fukuda-Parr, S. (2003). The Human Development Paradigm: Operationalizing Sen's Ideas On Capabilities. Feminist Economics, 9(2-3), 301-317.
Harkness, S. (2004). Social and Political Indicators of Human Well-Being. United Nations University: World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER). Research Paper No. 2004/33. Retrieved from https://www.wider.unu.edu/sites/default/files/rp2004-033.pdf
Harttgen, K., & Klasen, S. (2010). A Household-Based Human Development Index. World Development, 40(5), 878-899.
Hicks, D. A. (1997). The inequality-adjusted Human Development Index: A Constructive Proposal. World Development, 25(8), 1283-1298.
Hopkins, M. (1991). Human Development Revisited: A New UNDP Report. World Development, 19(10), 1469-1473.
Jean, S., & Jiménez, M. (2011). The Unemployment Impact of Immigration in OECD countries. European Journal of Political Economy, 27(2), 241-256
Jean, S., Causa, O., Jimenez, M., & Wanner, I. (2007). Migration in OECD countries: Labor market impact and integration issues. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economics Department Working Papers, No. 562. Retrieved from https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/migration-in-oecd-countries_164604735126
Jordan, J. L. (2004). Constructing a Human Development Index for Georgia's Counties. University of Georgia, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics Faculty Series No. 16672. Retrieved from http://purl.umn.edu/16672
Khan, H. (1991). Measure and determinants of socioeconomic development: A critical conspectus. Social Indicators Research, 24, 153–175.
Lüchters, G., & Menkhoff, L. (2000). Chaotic Signals from HDI Measurement. Applied Economics Letters, 7(4), 267-270.
Machin, S., & Manning, A. (1999). Chapter 47 The causes and consequences of longterm unemployment in Europe. Handbook of Labor Economics, 3(C), 3085-3139
Mahlberg, B., & Obersteiner, M. (2001). Remeasuring the HDI by data envelopment analysis. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA). Interim Report IR-01-069, Laxemburg, Austria. Retrieved from http://pure.iiasa.ac.at/id/eprint/6455/1/IR-01-069.pdf
Marchante, A. J., & Ortega, B. (2006). Quality of Life and Economic Convergence across Spanish Regions, 1980–2001. Regional Studies, 40(5), 471–483.
Mazumdar, K. (1999). Measuring the Well-Beings of the Developing Countries: Achievement and Improvement Indices. Social and Industrial Research, 47, 1–60.
McGillivray, M. (1991). The Human Development Index: Yet Another Redundant Composite Development Indicator?. World Development, 19(10), 1461-1468.
Morse, S. (2003). Greening the United Nations' Human Development Index?. Sustainable Development, 11(4), 183–198.
Neri, M. C. (2008). A Perceived Human Development Index. Ensaios Econômicos, No. 687. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10438/2173
Nguefack-Tsague, G., Klasen, S., & Zucchini, W. (2011). On weighing the components of the Human Development Index: A statistical justification. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, 12(2), 183-202.
Ogwang, T. (2000). Inter-country inequality in human development indicators. Applied Economics Letters, 7(7), 443-446.
Osberg, L., & Sharpe, A. (2003). Human Well-being and Economic Well-being: What Values Are Implicit in Current Indices?. CSLS Research Report 2003-04. Retrieved from www.csls.ca/reports/10-03-02_wider.pdf
Panigrahi, R., & Sivramkrishna, S. (2002). An adjusted Human Development Index: Robust country rankings with respect to the choice of fixed maximum and minimum indicator values. Journal of Human Development, 3(2), 301-311.
Paul, S. (1996). A modified human development index and international comparison. Applied Economics Letters, 3(10), 677-682.
Ristić, V. (1998). Gordana Matković (urednik): "lzveštaj о humanom razvoju Jugoslavija 1997. godine - Human Development Report Yugoslavia 1997. Stanovnistvo, 36(3-4), 141-148. Retrieved from https://www.idn.org.rs/ojs3/stanovnistvo/index.php/STNV/article/view/392
Segura, S. L., & Moya, E. G. (2009). Human Development Index: A Non-Compensatory Assessment. Cuadernos de Economia, 28(50), 223-235.
Smith, P. (1993). Measuring human development. Asian Economic Journal, 7(1), 89–106.
Smith, R. B. (2009). Global human development: Accounting for its regional disparities. Quality and Quantity, 43(1), 1-34.
Srinivasan, T. N. (1994). Human development: a new paradigm or reinvention of the wheel?. The American Economic Review, 84(2), 238-243.
Stapleton, L. M., & Garrod, G. D. (2007). Keeping things simple: why the Human Development Index should not diverge from its equal weights assumption. An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, 84(2), 179-188.
Taner, M. T., Sezen, B., Alpkan, L., & Aren, S. (2010). Recomputation of UNDP’s HDI rankings by Data Envelopment Analysis. Emerging Markets Journal, 1(2), 21-35.
The Human Development Report. (2020). United Nations Development Program. Oxford University Press: New York.
Ul Haq, M. (1995). Reflections on Human Development. New York: Oxford University Press.
Wijaya, A., Kasuma, J., Tasenţe, T., & Darma, D. C. (2021). Labor force and economic growth based on demographic pressures, happiness, and human development: Empirical from Romania. Journal of Eastern European and Central Asian Research, 8(1), 40-50.
Wijayanti, T. C., & Darma, D. C. (2019). The Role Of Investment And Government Expenditure On Grdp And Human Development In East Kalimantan. Internatıonal Journal of Scıentıfıc & Technology Research, 8(9), 1232-1237.
Wolff, H., Chong H., & Auffhammer, M. (2009). Human Development Index: Are Developing Countries Misclassified?. Agricultural & Applied Economics Association 2009, AAEA&ACCI Joint Annual Meeting. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228583433_Human_Development_Index_Are_Developing_Countries_Misclassified#:~:text=First%2C%20using%20the%20cutoff%20values,of%20developing%20countries%20are%20misclassified.