Exploring the role of Biradari in career growth: Evidence from public sector organizations of Islamabad
Keywords:Biradari, networking, social capital, career growth, Pakistan
Biradari (Brotherhood) is one of the most important principles of Pakistani culture. The Biradari (Brotherhood) ties are considered very strong among south Asian communities, especially in Pakistan. It is an important cultural element of Punjabi cultural setup, considered as the strong binder in making group alliances and performs a significant role in daily life. The major objective of this research is to study the crucial role of Biradari relations in organizations and how does it affect the career growth of an individual. Academic researchers have highlighted different indicators and factors which contribute to career growth. Social networks, sifarish, and favoritism are deeply embedded dimensions of Pakistani culture. This research significantly contributes to the literature by giving the holistic view of Biradari and the importance of Biradari based networks in job selection and promotion. The research is conducted in the public sector organization of Islamabad (PIMS). The qualitative research methodology was used for this study and data was collected from fifteen (15) employees through in-depth interviews. The results of the study reveal that Biradari significantly influences the career growth of individual and it is considered as strong support for individual career growth. The results have further highlighted that in today's competitive environment individuals cannot able to achieve a successful career without using his/her networks.
Ahmed, M. (2006). Biraderi role in interest articulation in Pakistan. Journal of Social Sciences, 2 (1), 112
Ahmad, M. & Naseem, F. (2011). The social system influences the political system: A comparative study of sub-continent. Berkeley Journal of Social Sciences, 1 (1), 72-80.
Akhtar, N. & Mushtaq, S. (2014). The dynastic elites and its recruitment in political process of Pakistan. Berkeley Journal of Social Sciences, 4 (1), 1-18.
Arif, A., & Shabbir, M. S. (2019). A common currency for Islamic countries: is it viable? Transnational Corporations Review, 11(3), 222-234.
Asia Pacific Human Development Report. (2010). Power, voice, and rights: A turning point for gender equality in Asia and the pacific.
Awan, M.A. (2016). Political participation of women in Pakistan: historical and political dynamics shaping the structure of politics for women. Global Islamic.
Bari, F. (2005). Women's political participation: Issues and Challenges. Draft paper, division for the advancement of women.
Bari, F. (2015). Bridging the fault lines? Rethinking the gender quota approach in Pakistan. Publication Series: Reviewing Gender Quotas in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Ballington, J. & Karam, A. (2005). Women in parliament: beyond numbers. International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance: Sweden. 34-39.
Bari, (2017). Women parliamentarians: Challenging the frontiers of politics in Pakistan. Gender, Technology, and Development. 14 (3), 363-384.
Basu, A. (2005). Women, political parties, and social movements in South Asia. Governing women: Women’s political effectiveness in contexts of democratization and governance reform,94-97.
Ballington, J. & Matland, R.E. (2004). Political parties and special measures: enhancing women’s participation in electoral processes, 19-22.
Bjarnegard, E. & Kenny, M. (2016). Comparing candidate selection: A feminist institutionalist approach. Government and Opposition, 51, (3), 370-392. DOI: 10.1017/gov.2016.4
Butt, K.M, & Victor, T. (2014). Women empowerment by local representation: a case study of Lahore, 12–14.
Castillejo, C. (2013). Gender and state-building. Routledge Handbook of International State building, 33.
Candland, C. (2007). Workers’ Organizations in Pakistan: Why no Role in Formal Politics? Critical Asian Studies, 39 (1), 35-57.
Derichs, C., & Thompson, M.R. (2003). Dynastien und politische Führerinnen in Asien’.
Dahlerup, D. (2005). Enhancing women's political participation: legislative recruitment and electoral systems. In Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers. A Revised Edition, 93-111.
Dahlerup, D. (2006). Electoral quotas: Frequency and Effectiveness. In Women, Quotas, and Politics, 275-292.
Dahlerup, D. & Freidenvall, L. (2005). Quotas as a ‘fast track’ to equal representation for women – Why Scandinavia is no longer the model. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 7 (1), 26-48
Dutoya, V. (2013). From women’s quota to “women’s politics. The impact of gender quotas on political representations and practices in the Pakistani national parliament. Femina Politica, Politica, 2,17-34.
Fazal, H. & Tariq, S. (2016). Socio-economic implications and participation of women in Pakistani politics. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 36 (2), 947-957.
Fleschenberg, A. (2008). Asia's women politicians at the top: roaring tigresses or tame kittens? In Iwanaga, K. (Eds.), Women's political participation and representation in Asia: obstacles and challenges. (pp. 33-35).
Fleschenberg, A. (2013). Benazir Bhutto: her people’s sister? A contextual analysis of female Islamic governance. In Derichs, C. & Thompson, M. (Eds.), Dynasties and female political leaders in Asia. gender, power, and pedigree. 69.
Gender Review of Political Framework for Women Political Participation. (2010). Institutional strengthening of NCSW Support to Implement of GRAPs, National Commission on the Status of Women, Islamabad.
Gopalan, J. (2012). Women in politics in South Asia. Background Paper Series, Prajnya Resource Centre on Women in Politics and Policy.
Hinojosa, M. (2005). Sex and the cities: candidate selection and women's representation in municipal politics in Chile and Mexico. Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, Massachusetts.
International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. (2007). Political parties in South Asia: The challenge of change. South Asian Regional Report Based on research and Dialogue with political parties.
Jabeen, M. & Jadoon, M.Z.I. (2009). Gender and local governance in Pakistan: Representative vs. participation. International NGO Journal. 4, (5), 264-276.
Jahan, R. (1987). Women in South Asia. Third World Quarterly, 9 (3), 848-870.
Jalazai, F & Krook, M.L. (2010). Beyond Hillary and Benazir; women’s political leadership worldwide. International Political Science Review, 31(1), 5-23.
Krook, M.L. (2007). Candidate gender quotas: A framework for analysis. European Journal of Political Research, 46. 367-394.
Krook, M. L. (2009). Quotas for Women in Politics: Gender and Candidate Selection Reform Worldwide, New York: Oxford University Press.
Lyon, S. (2002). Power and patronage in Pakistan.”, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kent, Canterbury.
Matland, R. E. & Montgomery, K.A. (2003). Women’s access to political power in post-communist Europe.
Matland, R. (2005). Women’s political participation: Legislative recruitment and electoral systems. In Ballington, J. & Karam, A. (Eds.), Women in parliament: beyond numbers, 93-111.
Macaulay, F. (2006). Gender politics in Brazil and Chile: the role of parties in the nation and local policymaking. 103-106.
Majid, F.B., Kabir, P., & Kabir, R. (2008). Breaking the barriers: claiming women’s space in politics in South Asia.
Mumtaz, K. (2005). Women's representation, effectiveness, and leadership in South Asia.
Nguyen, V.K., Shabbir, M. S., Sail, M.S., & Thuy, T. H. (2020). Does the informal economy impede economic growth? Evidence from an emerging economy. Journal of Sustainable Finance & Investment.
Norris, P. (1997). Introduction: Theories of recruitment and conclusions: comparing passages to power. In Norris, P. (Eds.), Passages to Power: Legislative Recruitment in advanced democracies,1-14.
Norris, P. & Lovenduski, J. (1995). Political recruitment: gender, race, and class in the British parliament. Cambridge University Press.
Norris, P., & Inglehart, R. (2000). Cultural barriers to women’s leadership: A worldwide comparison.
Pandey, A. (2005). South Asia: politics of South Asia: Women’s political participation, 17.
Pitre, S. (2003). Women’s struggle for legislative power: The role of political parties. Atlantis, 27 (2), 102-109.
Saddiqui, U. A. (2014). Hierarchy of women political participation and incommensurability between women representation and empowerment in South Asia: Pakistan in perspective. 12–14.
Saher, N. & Mayrhofer, W. (2013)., The role of Vartan bhanji in implementing HRM practices in Pakistan. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25 (2), 1881-1903.
Saleem, H., Khan, M. B., & Shabbir, M. S. (2019). The role of financial development, energy demand, and technological change in environmental sustainability agenda: evidence from selected Asian countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-15.
Sharma, P. (2014). The oligarchic patriarchal political culture of women participation in South Asia: with special reference to India, Bangladesh, Pakistan.
Shaheed, F. (2002). Imagined citizenship: women, state, and politics in Pakistan.
Shaheed, F. (2010). Great revolts and small rebellions: citizenship and the social dimension of movement building imagined.
Shabbir, M. (2015). Innovation and competitiveness lead to industrial trade. Available at SSRN 2659847.
Shabbir, M. S. (2019). Informal shariah pawnshop in the traditional markets of Surakarta. Journal of Islamic Marketing.
Shabbir, M. S., Ghazi, M. S., & Mehmood, A. R. (2016). Impact of social media applications on small business entrepreneurs. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 6(3), 203-05.
Shabbir, M. S. (2019). Nexus between customer preference and operation of conventional banks Islamic windows in Pakistan. Journal of Islamic Marketing.
Shabbir, M. S. (2018). Classification and prioritization of waqf land: a Selangor case. International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, 11(1), 40-58.
Syed, J., Ali., F., & Winstanley, D. (2005). In pursuit of modesty: contextual emotional labor and the dilemma for working women in Islamic societies. International Journal of Work Organization and Emotion, 1 (2), 150-167.
True, J., Niner, S., Parashar, S. & George, N. (2012). Women's political participation in Asia and the pacific.
Vivian Roza, M.A. (2010). Gatekeepers to power: party-level influences on women’s political participation in Latin America.
Zakaria, R. (2016,). The thorny question of quotas. Daily Dawn.