International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) <p>The University of Dubai (UD) is organizing the International Conference On Advances In Business Management And Law- 2017. This conference, which is taking place from November 25 to November 26, 2017, will be attended by international researchers, faculty members, PhD scholars as presenters as well as representatives from reputable Business Schools and Universities from more than 15 different countries.</p> <p>All articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp; Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited. For more information on Creative Commons, please follow this link:&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Selection and Peer-review under the responsibility of the UNIVERSITY OF DUBAI - DUBAI BUSINESS SCHOOL -&nbsp; ICABML Conference Committee</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN:&nbsp;2523-6547</strong></p> University of Dubai - Dubai Business School en-US International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2523-6547 Banks’ Profitability Under Democratic & Dictatorship Regime: Evidence from Pakistan <p>The aim of the study is to find out the determinants of profitability of Pakistan Banking System under democratic and dictatorship regime, i.e. 2006-2008 and 2009-2011 respectively. The authors were taken macroeconomic variables, i.e. GDP, Inflation and Interest Rate and bank-specific variables, i.e. Liquidity, size and capital adequacy as independent variables whereas Return on Asset as the dependent variable. By employing panel regression, the authors found that size has a significant negative relationship with profitability under both regimes. Interest and Liquidity had a positive significant relationship during democratic tenure. However, liquidity had significantly negative relationship between dictatorship duration. The findings will be helpful for the banking sector to make their policies accordingly.</p> Muhammad AsadUllah Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 2 1 1 9 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.69 Supply Chain Flexibility and Financial Performance in the Emergent Market “Morocco case study”. <p><em>Today, and especially in the emergent market, the company success is directly linked to its capacity to deal with the highly changing environment, and how much its supply chain is flexible regarding these changes. The paper analyses how the supply chain flexibility impacts the firms’ financial performance in the emergent market, taking Morocco as a study case due to what this country demonstrated as economical resilience during the recent economic crisis and during the “Arab Spring”, by applying a multiple linear regression model. The result suggests that the supply chain flexibility has a significant impact on the firms’ revenue growth, confirming that today the supply chain flexibility is a key element in the company’s business sustainability.</em></p> <p><strong><em>JEL codes</em></strong><strong>:</strong> <em>G39, M11, O4, </em></p> Mohamed Houssam Rochdi Morad Lemtaoui Hajar Raji Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-01-31 2019-01-31 2 1 16 27 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.168 Big Data Big Impact: How Firms are Using Social Media for Innovation and Better Performance <p><em>Firms continuously attempt to find new sources of information to innovate and achieve a superior performance. Big data present on social media platforms represents one of the new sources of information that firms are starting to rely on. This paper is an exploratory study to examine how firms are making use of social media and what kind of impact the social media use have. An online questionnaire was used to collect data from 75 firms in the United States. Our findings suggest that Big Data, in the form of social media data, has an impact on the firm’s innovativeness and performance, and that IT capability potentially plays a mediator role in this relation.</em></p> Ali El Samra Leonidas Anastasakis Pavel Albores Victoria Uren Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-02-03 2019-02-03 2 1 32 42 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.180 Build Innovation through Organizational Learning Capability <p><em>This research paper aims to explain the relationship between Organizational Learning (OL), and Organization Innovation (OI). The Author has used analysis of the related literatures to have deep understanding of the subject. This research offers personal mastery, systems thinking and team learning as organizational Learning Capability that will help the entity to have an innovation. </em></p> Abdulmunem Saleh Alshehhi Wathiq Mansoor Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-02-10 2019-02-10 2 1 43 46 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.211 Does crisis affect credit risk in developing countries? <p><em>At the core of the crisis marked by its magnitude, credit risk turned to become a powerful catalyst. The objective of this paper is mainly to follow up the evolution of the credit risk at the Jordanian market during the recent economic and financial international crisis. Based on the linear discriminant model Z-Score and KMV structural model, we recognize the increase in the credit risk during the crisis period. On the whole, the confrontation between models highlights the robust correlation between the accounting results of a company and its market value.</em></p> MARC KOUZEZ Danielle Lecointre-Erickson Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-02-10 2019-02-10 2 1 47 59 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.218 Estimating the Output GAP for Lebanon: A Production Function methodology <p>This paper estimates the output Gap for Lebanon to analyze the economic policy and to judge the stance of the economy. Therefore, a Cobb-Douglas production function is estimated for the period Q<sub>1</sub>1998 to Q<sub>4</sub>2015 and potential output calculated by substituting for potential levels of the factors in the estimated production function. The calculation of potential labor required the calculation of the NAIRU. This paper calculates therefore three types of NAIRU. The results of output gap calculations show that the Lebanese economy is working over its capacity and that it hits his limits. Furthermore, findings show that the labor market is characterized by high levels of NAIRU which restricted potential output growth. Therefore, any policy aiming to increase economic growth, while neglecting structural reforms will prove to be unsustainable.</p> Latifa Ghalayini Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-03-02 2019-03-02 2 1 60 83 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.205 Prospects of Oman as a Destination for Halal Tourism <p><em>Although a vast majority relates the concept of ‘halal’ or what is permissible in Islam to food only. However, halal industry covers many sectors such as food, fashion, transport, finance and even tourism. Halal tourism is not just about halal food, it is also about the overall experience, which is amenable with the Shariah (Islamic jurisprudence). Oman has a plethora of natural beauty and many places of interest for all types of tourists. It is one of the most secure and peaceful countries in the world. Having a well-developed Infrastructure, Oman is ready to take its tourism to new heights. The ever-hospitable Omanis are proud of their rich cultural and historical heritage. Thus, Oman appears to have all what it takes to become a prime destination for halal tourism. The objective of this study is to assess the prospects of Oman as a destination for halal tourism. Based on the interviews of experts like academicians, tourism professionals, officials and clerics, Oman’s competitiveness as a destination for halal tourism was assessed by developing a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) profile. The findings of the SWOT were compared with the data from the Global Muslim Travel Index (GMTI) from the year 2014 to 2018. Based on the analysis, Oman is found to have the right mix of environment and enabling services for halal tourism. However, it is found lacking in public transport, communication and customer outreach. Oman is also found to be losing its rank among the top 10 destinations for halal tourism to close competitors like Qatar, Bahrain, Morocco, etc. The concerned authorities need to make conscious efforts to resolve these issues as it becomes imperative for Oman to revamp its tourism strategy.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><strong><em>JEL codes: </em></strong><em>Z31, M31</em></p> Asad Rehman Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-03-02 2019-03-02 2 1 84 92 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.213 Numerical aspects of business court specialization <p style="margin-right: 0.07cm; margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 100%;" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Jurisdiction specialization is a topic of interest in the administration the justice system. Pros and cons have been vastly discussed, but few papers discuss the pratical details connected to the application of this policy. <span style="font-style: normal;">In this study, we discuss the creation of business courts in the County of São Paulo Brazil, and introduce innovating data analysis methodologies for solving pratical problems. In São Paulo, new courts, specialized or not, must follow </span><span style="font-style: normal;">two main criteria. </span><span style="font-style: normal;">New courts must have a minimum number of lawsuits per year and must have some estimate of the future worka load. </span><span style="font-style: normal;">In the performed analyses, we found evidence that a business lawsuit requires almost twice the amount of effort of a common lawsuit. By correcting the volume of lawsuits, based on a matter-treatment model, we arrived at the conclusion that two business courts can handle the existing demand adequately. </span><span style="font-style: normal;">Also, we were able to develop a robust methodology to verify if and how business courts should be created.</span></span></span></p> Fernando Correa Filho Julio Adolfo Zucon Trecenti Marcelo Guedes Nunes Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-03-02 2019-03-02 2 1 101 107 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.241 The Factors Influencing the Intensity of Market Participation among the Cattle Farmers in Adamawa state, Nigeria <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>The study examined Factors influencing the intensity of market participation among the cattle farmers in Adamawa state, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was employed to sample the respondents. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 400 respondents in the study area. Descriptive statistic was used to analysed the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents and truncated regression analysis was employed to estimate the determinants of intensity of market participation among the market participants. The result of the findings shows that cattle market participants were averagely aged 43 years, they are predominantly male (95.04%), (83.48%) were married, while (77.96%), (57.02%) had formal education and are full-time cattle farmers respectively. The result of truncated regression analysis revealed that age and gender of the household head, distance to market, herd size and seasonality were the explanatory variable that influenced the intensity of cattle market participation. Recommendations were made such as to encourage more formal education among the farmers, the more the participant is educated, the better the chance of participation in the cattle market and also to encourage female and those that are unmarried to participate in cattle marketing activities, and to provide adequate pasture land and water supply so as to curb the problems of exposure to avarice of weather, creates more additional sales point at farming communities is paramount important in the intensity of cattle market participation.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mohammed Girei Ibrahim Bosede Jospine Ayoola Bosede Jospine Ayoola Godwin A Abu Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-03-02 2019-03-02 2 1 113 119 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.246 Consumer Dispute Resolution in Cyberspace - Trends and Developments <p>Developments and advancements in the ICT environment has led to high increase in electronic commerce. Cyber contractual disputes also emerge rapidly and this challenge the traditional consumer protection systems in terms of redressal and remedies. To protect consumers rights and interests, ADR mechanisms can be used which can overcome the difficulties confronted in the traditional litigation process. Dispute resolution in internet contracts can take place online either entirely or partly. There are various mechanisms available to resolve disputes which can protect disputants’ interests and rights absolutely. As the cyber environment usage continues to expand, it is utmost important to design effective mechanisms for resolving online commercial disputes because traditional adjudicatory process can be time consuming, expensive and may raise jurisdictional problems. Though the current trends and practice in the field of online dispute resolution exists, it appears that there are various aspects relating to which are yet to be clarified. This article aims to present a national and international scientific literature review on the models of Dispute Resolution mechanisms, discusses the use of Alternative dispute resolution systems (including ODR), types of procedure and mechanisms adapted for dealing with commercial disputes in India. It also looks into the international frameworks available with redressal systems and its effectiveness in dealing with cross border disputes.</p> Ayyappan Palanissamy Kesava Moorthy Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-03-02 2019-03-02 2 1 120 127 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.253 Factors Affecting Constraints and Oppportunities for Women Entrepreneurs in UAE - An Overview. <p>Women entrepreneurs increasingly contribute to the economic growth and creation of job opportunities today. Despite the opportunities that are present in countries such as the UAE, some women are still unable to pursue their entrepreneurial motives, due to the constraints that they face. The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of various factors affecting the constraints and opportunities for women entrepreneurs in UAE. While existing literature describes some studies unfolding the wave of entrepreneurship among women, the ones focusing specifically on UAE cluster are even fewer. The paper acknowledges the various efforts made the governments to promote and encourage women entrepreneurship, and highlights some of the barriers for women entrepreneurship as well as giving recommendation to address those gaps. The article makes use previous research conducted on the topic and acts as a spring board for further empirical research.</p> Olivia Goncalves Sneha Bhatia Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-03-02 2019-03-02 2 1 128 136 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.254 Theorizing CSR Reporting: A Discursive Institutionalism Framework <p><em>Although CSR reporting is a well-established business practice now, it is still an emerging genre that lacks convergence and standardization. Different theoretical perspectives are used to study CSR reporting. These perspectives agree on the instrumental nature of CSR reporting, while they vary in the aspects of the practice they emphasize and in their normative assumptions. Using ‘Discursive Institutionalism’ as a theoretical lens, different practices in the field can be incorporated in the proposed framework to reach a comprehensive understanding of CSR reporting phenomenon. The paper aims to propose a theoretical framework for CSR reporting research that enables a holistic and comprehensive explanation that is inclusive of different practices and normative assumptions in the field. The proposed framework utilizes new developments in Institutional Theory that emphasize multiple institutional logics, the hybridity of social practices, the role of social agents, and the discursive aspect of institutions. The proposed theoretical framework adds a new comprehensive perspective to CSR reporting research. It provides a solid theoretical base for further investigation of different practices in the field.</em></p> Muatasim Ismaeel Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-03-02 2019-03-02 2 1 137 148 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.255 The Study of Green Human Resource Management and its effect on employees’ health in Automobile Industry <p>As of late, there has been an expanding mindfulness inside business networks on the essentialness of making strides toward environmental friendliness and receiving different condition management methods. As the corporate world is going worldwide, the business is encountering a move from a regular money related structure to a cutting edge limit based economy which is prepared to investigate green financial aspects of business. Today, Green Human Resource Management (GHRM) has turned into a key business methodology for the noteworthy associations where Human Resource Departments have a functioning influence in making strides toward environmental friendliness at the workplace. The main objective of this study is to review Green Human Resource Management and its effect on Employees Health in Automobile Industry. This study focuses on how and why Green Human Resource Management practices are implemented by different organizations. This study also reviews the negative and positive impacts of green-HRM practices on employee health and the employee commitment levels in organizations.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anuradha Anuradha A K Srivastava Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-03-02 2019-03-02 2 1 149 158 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.258 Women Entrepreneuurs and Survival of Small Scale Enterprises in Nigeria <p><em>This research set out to analyze the women entrepreneurs and survival of small–scale enterprises in Nigeria. The objective of this paper is to determine the extent of women entrepreneurs and survival of SSEs in Nigeria. One Hundred and Twenty Eight (128) questionnaires were retrieved for analysis. Data collected were analyzed using multiple regressions. The results revealed that Women entrepreneurs experience and women entrepreneurs’ level of education have significant effect on the survival of small scale enterprises in Nigeria. The study therefore, concluded that an increase in training or improvement in the activities of women entrepreneurship will lead to a significant increase in the maintenance and sustainability of SSEs in Nigeria. This paper recommended that since, women entrepreneurs experience and high level of education led to the survival of SSEs in Nigeria therefore, the Nigerian government should provide an avenue for adequate funding, training on entrepreneurship, provision of infrastructural facilities and enabling environment in order to enhance the women entrepreneurial activities as this would translate to increase in an income generation, provision of employment and reduction of poverty in Nigeria.&nbsp; </em></p> Lawal Muhammad Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-03-02 2019-03-02 2 1 176 183 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.269 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ETHICS-TRAINING PROGRAMS IN THE BANKING SECTOR <p>Academic and professional interest in organizational ethics-training is on the rise as advances in technology and global reach create increasing opportunities for violations of moral standards. To mitigate risks associated with moral hazard, organizations strive to create an ethical culture by offering formal ethics-training programs. Notably, the literature is rich with studies that confirm a positive effect of ethics-training programs on employee ethical behavior. However, such programs may become mere cosmetics in the presence of a weak ethical culture, a non-ethics oriented supervisor, and lack of policy enforcement. This study investigates the roles played by the afore-mentioned factors on the relationship between formal ethics-training and employee ethical intentions. The quantitative approach is used and data are analyzed using structural equation modeling with IBM’s Amos. Important findings are reported and relevant implications suggested.</p> Rima M. Bizri Ihab El Bizri Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-01-30 2019-01-30 2 1 10 15 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.207 The House Price Dynamics and the Macro-Economy: an Empirical Perspective of UAE <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The paper aims to examine house price drivers in Dubai, addressing the effect of internal and external factors afecting house prices</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Design/methedology/approach</strong>: Using the Hedonic price model, the study examined the implications of house size (space), the availability of bathrooms, bedrooms, waterfronts, and pool and cell phone towers within residential area as auxiliary determinant factors to housing price within developed cities by using the Hedonic Modelling. Also, study highlight the effect of the green strategies that been followed by developer on the housing prices.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>: The study is expected to reveal results with significant ramifications for researchers, practitioners and policy makers. From a policy perspective, there is an obvious interest in understanding whether the price of housing is affected by different attributes differently along its distribution.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Research limitations/implications</strong>: The data used in this study could be limited, and depends on information to be provided by the Dubai Land Department. There is a room for future research to include more data (such as on other house attributes such as house condition, plot numbers and configuration).</p> Yahya Hamad Al Zaabi Genanew Bekele Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-02-03 2019-02-03 2 1 28 33 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.209 SPECIALIZATION OF EUROPEAN WORKERS IN TIMES OF ECONOMIC RECESSION AND EXPANSION <p>Majority of studies proved that labor mobility and the effect of immigration differs with respect to the business cycle. The aim of the paper is to investigate differences in workers allocation within European countries during recession and expansion period. The presented analysis split European counties on two groups: a) West and South Europe; b) Middle and East Europe (post-communist economies). The specialization of workers is studied concentrating on differences between natives and immigrants with secondary or lower education. For the expansion period was found a&nbsp;sizable relocation of native workers to occupations with more interactive rather than manual content after immigration in West and South European counties. This effect was not found for recession period and for post-communist economies.</p> Tatiana Polonyankina Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-03-02 2019-03-02 2 1 93 97 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.219 The effects of window display construal on internal reactions and behavioral intentions <p>The objective of the study presented in this paper is to examine the effects of window-display construal on cognitive and affective responses as well as on behavioral intentions. A high-construal vs. &nbsp;low-construal design was carried out in a laboratory experiment over the period of one month. The findings suggest positive effects of construal level on behavioral intentions and negative mediation effects of cognition on subsequent responses.</p> Danielle Lecointre-Erickson Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-03-02 2019-03-02 2 1 98 100 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.232 THE IMPACT OF PROACTIVE-PERSONALITY ON INNOVATIVE WORK BEHAVIOR AND WORK ENGAGEMENT IN THE UAE AVIATION INDUSTRY. <p>The objective of this research is to examine the relationship between Proactive Personality, innovative work behavior, and work engagement. The sample consists of 220 respondent managers in the Aviation Industry in the UAE. Results of Structural Equation Modelling using SmartPLS revealed that there are significant relationships between Proactive Personality and innovative work behavior, and between Innovative Work Behavior and Work Engagement.<strong><br> <br> </strong></p> Sultan Salem Alshamsi Kamarul Zaman Bin Ahmad Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-03-02 2019-03-02 2 1 108 112 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.245 THEORIZING AGRICULTURE VALUE CHAINS: INTEGRATING SMALL HOLDER PRODUCERS TO OVERCOME HURDLES <p>Modern marketing techniques and restructured markets for agriculture products has made the small holder producers to fight against a number of consequences which they are actually not practiced or trained. As an alternative, new innovative practice like value chain approach has been identified in improving their ability to combat the restructured market conditions. This paper reviews the theoretical justifications and different viewpoints of value chains approach which can benefit the small holder producers in agriculture sector. A review on evidences from agricultural value chain experiences exposed the necessity of a tool or a business model like value chain approach to integrate the small holder producers to viable markets and to capitalize the immense opportunities in the markets, particularly for least developed and developing countries. The literature revealed that small holder producer can access international markets by establishing value chain networks and by building relationships in chain networks.</p> Hena M Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-03-02 2019-03-02 2 1 159 164 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.271 Towards a Sustainable Happiness Model for UAE: Lessons from Latin America <p>Traditionally studies on Happiness have been using income as a proxy for wellbeing and quality of life using GDP to measure progress of nations. We need to understand here that while income is an objective measure, Happiness is a subjective measure. One of the key criticisms leveled against GDP is that it does not take into account sustainability. Sometimes growth may be there but not achieved through sustainable thereby risking the future. On the flip side economic growth itself may not be sustainable in some cases. So can we depend on economic factors alone to be happy? In the past decade or so more and more countries are looking at the “Beyond GDP “agenda. in 2011 the OECD developed a framework for measuring wellbeing that can reflect and support development of measurement frameworks on a national level. there are a sizeable number of Latin American countries scoring consistently high on the Happiness index despite a number of socio economic issues. The recently published World Happiness report (2018) suggests that this is not a mere coincidence. It is based on the fact that Happiness in Latin America has social foundations. UAE lists in the top 20 countries with a happiness index of 6.774. (Source: World Happiness ranking 2015-17).This is the first ever attempt to superimpose the Latin American happiness model on the UAE local community to arrive at a sustainable happiness model for them.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Vidya Nandagopal Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-03-02 2019-03-02 2 1 165 175 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.278 THE ANTECEDENTS OF WORK RELATED STRESS <p>This research aims to test the limits of the theory that have found certain relationships in the West relating to the antecedents of stress. This research aims to show that much of the theories and research in the West are culture-bound and do not necessarily apply to other countries such as Malaysia and especially among certain age groups such as those between 15 years and 34 years known as Generation Y. Results of regression show that role ambiguity, work intensification,&nbsp; working conditions are significant predictors of work-related stress but role conflict, relationship with colleagues, and bullying or harassment are not significant predictors. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are offered.</p> Prof. Kamarul Zaman Bin Ahmad Raida Abu Bakar Chua Weng Ing Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-03-19 2019-03-19 2 1 184 188 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.261 Resolution of Maritime Disputes: Ad-hoc vs Institutional Mechanisms <p>The maritime industry had for long, recognized the relevance and significance of arbitration as a method of dispute resolution. The industry has been utilizing quasi-ad-hoc mechanism in conducting its arbitrations. Of recent, the industry is witnessing a phenomenal shift from the traditional quasi –ad-hoc mechanism to institutional mechanisms whereby special administrative centers dedicated to the resolution maritime disputes are being established to administer the dispute resolution. Recently, the government of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates, pursuant to Decree No (14) of 2016 had established Emirates Maritime Arbitration Center with the objective of settling local and international maritime disputes using alternative dispute resolution methods. The paper investigates the two approaches of ad-hoc vs institutionalism of administering dispute settlement in the maritime industry from a tailored analytical tool of ‘access to arbitration’ mirrored on the well-established legal principle of access to justice.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr. Nasiruddeen Muhammad Copyright (c) 2018 International Conference on Advances in Business, Management and Law (ICABML) 2019-03-19 2019-03-19 2 1 189 192 10.30585/icabml-cp.v2i1.281