Gender Differences in Entrepreneurial Attitude & Intentions among university Students
This empirical study aims at assessing the attitudes, perception and intention of university students towards entrepreneurship and new venture creation with a focus on gender differences in entrepreneurial perceptions and intentions to start new business in the future. Data were collected using a questionnaire-based survey of 350 students at the University of Khartoum in Sudan. The target population was the students in the final year in the University of Khartoum. The stratified sampling technique was used to select the sample size because the population consisted of a number of subgroups that differed in their characteristics. The results showed significant differences between genders in entrepreneurial intentions and its antecedents. Thus, it is important that customized approaches based on gender are needed for developing entrepreneurial intentions among college students.
Allen, I.E., Langowitz, N. and Minniti, M. (2006), 'Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Report on Women and Entrepreneurship', Babson College, Babson Park, MA and London Business School, London
Allen, I.E., Elam, N., Langowitz, N. and Dean, M. (2007), 'Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Report on Women and Entrepreneurship', Babson College, Babson Park, MA and London Business School, London.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behaviour. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211.
Barkovic, D., and Kruzic, D. (2010). Students’ perception and intentions towards entrepreneurship: the empirical findings from Croatia. The Business Review, Vol.14 No. 2, pp.209–215.
Baumol, W. 1993. Entrepreneurship, management, and the structure of payoffs. MIT press, Cambridge.
Bird, B. (1988). Implementing entrepreneurial ideas: the case for intention. Academy of Management
Brenner, O. C., Pringle, Ch. D., and Greenhaus, H. (1991). 'Perceived fulfillment of organizational employment versus entrepreneurship: work values and career intentions of business college graduates'. Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 29 No. 3, pp. 62–74. .
Bygrave, W. D., & Hofer, C. W. (1991). Theorizing about entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice , Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 13-22.
Crant, J. M. (1996). 'The proactive personality scale as a predictor of entrepreneurial intentions'. Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 34 No. 3, pp. 42–49.
Delmar, F., & Davidsson, P. (2000). 'Where do they come from? Prevalence and characteristics of nascent entrepreneurs'. Entrepreneurship & regional development, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 1-23.
Dinis Anabela , do Paço Arminda , Ferreira João , Raposo Mário ,and Gouveia Rodrigues Ricardo , (2013) 'Psychological characteristics and entrepreneurial intentions among secondary students', Education Training, Vol. 55 No. 8/9, pp. 763 - 780
Ekore, J. O., and Okekeocha, O. C. (2012). 'Fear of entrepreneurship among university graduates: a psychological analysis'. International Journal of Management, Vol.29 No.2, pp. 515.
F. Javier Miranda, Antonio Chamorro-Mera, Sergio Rubio, Jesús Pérez-Mayo, (2017) "Academic entrepreneurial intention: the role of gender", International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 9 Issue: 1, pp.66-86.
Franke, N., and Luthje, C. (2004). 'Entrepreneurial Intentions of Business Students: A Benchmarking Study. International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, Vol.1 No.3,pp. 269-288.
Harrison, R., & Hart, M. (1989). 'Factors influencing new business formation: A case study of Northern Ireland'. Environment and Planning, Vol.15 No.10, pp. 395-412.
Johansen, V. and Foss, L.(2013) ‘The effects of entrepreneurship education – does gender matter?’,Int. J. Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp.255–271.
Krueger, N. (1993), 'The impact of prior entrepreneurial exposure on perceptions of new venture feasibility and desirability', Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Fall, pp. 5-21.
Kolvereid, L., Åmo, B.W. and Alsos, G. (2005) Entreprenørskap i Norge 2005 (Entrepreneurship in Norway 2005), University of Nordland, Bodø
Krueger, N. F., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. (2000). 'Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions'. Journal of Business Venturing, No.15 No(5–6), pp. 411–432.
Majumdar, S., & Varadarajan, D. (2013). Students' attitude towards entrepreneurship: does gender matter in the UAE?. Foresight, Vol. 15 No.4, pp. 278-293.
Marina Dabic, Tugrul Daim, Elvan Bayraktaroglu, Ivan Novak, and Maja Basic, (2012) 'Exploring gender differences in attitudes of university students towards entrepreneurship: An international survey', International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 4 I No. 3, pp.316-336,
Mazzarol, T., Volery, T., Doss, N. & Thein, V. (1999). 'Factors influencing small business star-ups'. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 48-63.
Johnson, D. (2001). 'What is innovation and entrepreneurship? Lessons for larger organisations'. Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol.33 No. 4, pp.135-140.
Mushtaq, H. A., Niazi, C. S. K., & Hunjra, A. I. (2011). 'Planned behavior entrepreneurship and intention to create a new venture among young graduates'. Management & Marketing, Vol. 6 No.3, pp. 437.
Opoku-Antwi, G. L., Amofah, K., Nyamaah-Koffuor, K., & Yakubu, A. (2012). 'Entrepreneurial intention among senior high school students in the Sunyani municipality'. International Review of Management and Marketing, Vol.2 No.4, 210.
Santarelli, E., Carree, M., and Verheul, I. (2009). 'Unemployment and firm entry and exit: an update on a controversial relationship'. Regional Studies, Vol. 43 No.8, pp.1061-1073.
Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of management review, Vol. 25 No.1, pp. 217-226.
Shapero, A. (1975).' The displaced, uncomfortable entrepreneur'. Psychology Today, Vol. 9 No.6, pp. 83-88
Stevenson H. H., Jarillo J. C. (1990). A paradigm of entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial management. Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 11, pp.17–27.
Tsyganova, T. , Shirokova, G. (2010). ‘Gender differences in entrepreneurship: evidence from GEM data’. Organizations and Markets in Emerging Economies. Vol.1 No.1, pp. 120-141
Varadarajan, D., Majumdar, S. and Gallant, M. (2010), ‘‘Relevance of education for potential entrepreneurs: an international investigation’’, Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship Development, Vol. 17 No. 4, pp. 626-640.
Yukongdi, Nusrat Zahan Lopa, (2017) "Entrepreneurial intention: a study of individual, situational and gender differences", Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 24 Issue: 2, pp.333-352,
Zain, Z. M., Akram, A. M., and Ghani, E. K. (2010). 'Entrepreneurship Intention Among Malaysian Business Students'. Canadian social science, Vol. 6 No.3, pp. 34-44
Zhao, Hao, Scott, E., Seibert, and Gerald E. Hills. ( 2005). 'The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions'. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 90 No.6, pp. 1265-1272